Instructor(s): Lewis Rothberg, Kara L. Bren, Thomas R. Krugh
Prerequisites: CHM 131 or equivalent. Crosslisting:None.
Course Summary: A continuation of Chemical Concepts, Systems and Practices I, emphasizing molecular and macroscopic approaches to chemical systems with examples concerned with life sciences or energy and the environment. Topics covered include: Chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, properties of atoms, atomic structure, and chemical bonding. In addition to course lectures, there is a three hour laboratory every week, a 50 minute laboratory/lecture and a 50 minute recitation. You must register for the laboratory/lecture and laboratory (linked) prior to the start of the semester. Recitations will be assigned in the main lecture during the first week of classes. This course uses the Tuesday/Thursday 8:00 - 9:30 am Common Exam time.
Heat, work, energy, and the First Law
Thermodynamic processes: cyclic processes
Optimizing the work you do: Reversible and irreversible processes
Spontaneous chemical reactions. Entropy and entropy changes. Definition of entropy, S. Definition of Second Law via S. Entropy changes: for heating objects, entropy change for reversible isothermal expansion.
Molecular Disorder: Statistical interpretation of S. The Third Law of thermodynamics.
Spontaneity in Chemical Reactions. The Gibbs Free Energy G and Chemical Equilibria. Standards states, Gibbs Free Energy changes and Keq.
Electrical Energy from Chemical Reactions
Electrical energy from atoms: Redox reactions. The Nernst equation.
Electrochemical cells and fuel cells: Energy from batteries. Light into electrical energy. Energy storage in H2 via water splitting. The hydrogen economy.
Electrolysis in aqueous and non-aqueous systems
Energy Consumption in Industrial Electrochemical Processes: Aluminum production and the Hall process.
Chemical Kinetics: Atmospheric Chemistry
Principles gas phase chemical kinetics: rate laws and mechanisms
Stratospheric removal of O3: NOx vs. Cl from CFC's CFC, chlorine photochemistry
Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, surface kinetics: ClONO2, HCl reservoirs
Sources of energy: nuclei
The Atomic Theory: Modern evidence for electrons and the nucleus. Rutherford scattering.
The nucleus: Isotopes and mass spectrometry revisited. Nuclear processes. Nuclear decay by emission of particles and radiation. Radioactive decay and first order kinetics.
Energy from nuclear reactions: E = mc2. Nuclear thermochemistry.
Fission and fusion.
Energy from atoms
Quantum Theory: deBroglie waves, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the Schrödinger equation. One-electron atoms. Many-electron atoms. Pauli Principle, Aufbau Principle, Hund's rules
Atomic properties and the Periodic Table.
Chemical Stability and Energetics: Chemical Bonds
Lewis structures, ionic and covalent bonds and bond enthalpies; Bond polarity
Molecular energy levels and spectroscopy; Simple molecular orbital concepts; Molecular shapes
Greenhouse gases and global warming
Required Text: Steven S. Zumdahl, Chemical Principles, 7th edition