Chemistry 132 » Spring » Full Semester
Chemical Concepts, Systems and Practices IIInstructor(s): Benjamin Hafensteiner, James M. Farrar, Douglas H. Turner, Thomas R. KrughPrerequisites: CHM 131 or equivalent.Crosslisting: None.
A continuation of Chemical Concepts, Systems and Practices I, emphasizing molecular and macroscopic approaches to chemical systems with examples concerned with life sciences or energy and the environment. Topics covered include: Chemical kinetics, electrochemistry, thermodynamics, properties of atoms, atomic structure, and chemical bonding. In addition to course lectures, there is a three hour laboratory every week, a 50 minute laboratory/lecture and a 50 minute recitation. You must register for the laboratory/lecture and laboratory (linked) prior to the start of the semester. Recitations will be assigned in the main lecture during the first week of classes. This course uses the Tuesday/Thursday 8:00 - 9:30 am Common Exam time.
- Energy Conservation
- Heat, work, energy, and the First Law
- Thermodynamic processes: cyclic processes
- Optimizing the work you do: Reversible and irreversible processes
- Thermodynamic Efficiency
- Spontaneous Processes
- Spontaneous chemical reactions. Entropy and entropy changes. Definition of entropy, S. Definition of Second Law via S. Entropy changes: for heating objects, entropy change for reversible isothermal expansion.
- Molecular Disorder: Statistical interpretation of S. The Third Law of thermodynamics.
- Spontaneity in Chemical Reactions. The Gibbs Free Energy G and Chemical Equilibria. Standards states, Gibbs Free Energy changes and Keq.
- Electrical Energy from Chemical Reactions
- Electrical energy from atoms: Redox reactions. The Nernst equation.
- Electrochemical cells and fuel cells: Energy from batteries. Light into electrical energy. Energy storage in H2 via water splitting. The hydrogen economy.
- Electrolysis in aqueous and non-aqueous systems
- Energy Consumption in Industrial Electrochemical Processes: Aluminum production and the Hall process.
- Chemical Kinetics: Atmospheric Chemistry
- Principles gas phase chemical kinetics: rate laws and mechanisms
- Stratospheric removal of O3: NOx vs. Cl from CFC's CFC, chlorine photochemistry
- Catalysis: Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, surface kinetics: ClONO2, HCl reservoirs
- Photochemical pollution
- Sources of energy: nuclei
- The Atomic Theory: Modern evidence for electrons and the nucleus. Rutherford scattering.
- The nucleus: Isotopes and mass spectrometry revisited. Nuclear processes. Nuclear decay by emission of particles and radiation. Radioactive decay and first order kinetics.
- Energy from nuclear reactions: E = mc2. Nuclear thermochemistry.
- Fission and fusion.
- Energy from atoms
- Quantum Theory: deBroglie waves, Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle, the Schrödinger equation. One-electron atoms. Many-electron atoms. Pauli Principle, Aufbau Principle, Hund's rules
- Atomic properties and the Periodic Table.
- Chemical Stability and Energetics: Chemical Bonds
- Lewis structures, ionic and covalent bonds and bond enthalpies; Bond polarity
- Molecular energy levels and spectroscopy; Simple molecular orbital concepts; Molecular shapes
- Greenhouse gases and global warming
Steven S. Zumdahl, Chemical Principles, 7th edition